Friday, May 31, 2013

Par Jeanne Dréan

Chanel était déjà la marque de maquillage préférée des Françaises... Elle arrive également devant Clarins et Dior, en tête du classement des marques de soins réalisé par Promise Consulting Inc. pour Huffingtonpost.fr. Une fois encore, ce sont les maisons de luxe et de cosmétiques haut de gamme qui tirent leur épingle du jeu. Ce qu’il faut aussi retenir de cette étude, c’est la présence dans ce top 10 de marques plus connues pour leurs parfums, telles que Lancôme (4e du classement) et Guerlain (6e). A l’inverse, on y trouve aussi sans surprise des marques spécialistes du soin de la peau comme Clinique (5e) et Biotherm (9e).

Clarins, dans le cœur des Françaises
Dans ce palmarès, la marque Clarins talonne Chanel de très près et montre combien elle a su s’inscrire durablement dans les routines beauté des Françaises depuis sa création par Jacques Courtin en 1954. Sa différence : une marque indépendante des grands groupes cosmétiques internationaux, qui reste tout de même leader des soins de beauté en Europe. Sa valeur : la protection de l’environnement avec des soins qui évitent l’utilisation de produits d’origine animale et aident à lutter contre les effets néfastes de la pollution sur la peau. Associée à son savoir-faire, cette stratégie confère à cette marque le meilleur indice de réputation parmi toutes les marques citées dans cette étude.

Et vous, quelle est votre marque de soins préférée ? Etes-vous d’accord avec ce classement ?



source:elle.fr

Sylvia Hoeks



Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.


source:imdb.com

Powers Boothe

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Teri Polo

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Kate Moss by Jennifer Chan




When it comes to fashion icons, Kate Moss is one class act who never ceases to amaze us with her incredible style.
From her perfectly-fitting skinny jeans and enviable collection of fabulous coats and luxe handbags, the gorgeous supermodel tends to turn heads on and off the runway.


And while she is certainly well-informed about the hottest trends and most covetable designer labels, she gravitates towards timeless separates that never go out of style.
One glance at the hip all-black ensemble and statement-making accessories she wore while in out and about in Paris, and it's quite clear that she exudes downtown cool like there's no tomorrow!



source:VPA/AKM-GSI/eonline.com

Sarah Wayne Callies




Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.


source:imdb.com

Mr. Morgan Freeman

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday Mr. Freeman.

God bless.

Lolita Chakrabarti

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Ms. Rona Newton-John





by Rebecca Macatee

Sad news for Olivia Newton-John's family.
The Grease star's older sister, Rona Newton-John, died Friday at age 70 after battling an aggressive brain tumor she was just diagnosed with last month.
Olivia, who is a breast-cancer survivor, confirmed the news on her Facebook page Wednesday.
"My beautiful sister Rona sadly passed on May 24th in Los Angeles. It was May 25th in Australia - which was our mother Irene's birthday," she wrote.

"Rona died of a very aggressive brain tumor and mercifully suffered no pain. She was surrounded by the love of her four children - Fiona, Brett, Tottie and Emerson, and her wonderful friends," she continued. "I will miss her forever - my beautiful, smart, talented, funny, brave sister Rona."
The family has asked that in lieu of flowers, donations be made to the Olivia Newton-John Cancer and Wellness Centre, where a brain-tumor wellness program will be set up in Rona's name.





*We extend our sympathy to the family, relatives, friends and fans.
*RIP



source:eonline.com

Thursday, May 30, 2013

Ana Beatriz Barros(Not suitable for kids)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZraXYB9D40

Comments:Not suitable for kids

Paige Rowland




source:imdb.com

May 27, 2013

Mr. Louis Gossett Jr.
Giuseppe Tornatore
André Benjamin
Linnea Quigley
Mr. Bruce Weitz
Jodi Harris
Lee Meriwether
Chelsea Field
Eddie McClintock
Anita Blond
Jordan Ash
Vanessa Blue
Luke Webb
Mr. Richard Schiff
Chris Colfer
Ben Feldman
Neil Finn
Paige Rowland
DJ Colette
Camila Alves
Myrka Dellanos


Belated Happy Birthday guys. God bless.


Dayana Sabrina Mendoza Moncada




source:ask.com

May 28, 2013


Alicia Minshew, Clement von Franckenstein, Elisabeth Hasselbeck, Megalyn Echikunwoke, Monica Keena, Jesse Bradford, Mr. Rudolph W. Giuliani, Sabrina Machado, Gladys Knight and Colbie Caillat

Belated Happy Birthday guys. God bless.

Heidi Klum

Dayana Sabrina Mendoza Moncada




This coming Saturday(June 1), is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.


source:ask.com

Heidi Klum




This coming Saturday(June 1), is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.


source:cdn.static.telepixtv.com

Colin Farrell

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Brooke Shields

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Lea Thompson

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Mr. Clint Eastwood

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday Mr. Eastwood.

God bless.

May 31, 2013

Elena Eustache
Reggie Yates
Liraz Charhi
Justine Cotsonas
Zana Marjanovic
Julio Oscar Mechoso
Ara Celi
Kyle Secor
Jack Gilpin
Roma Maffia
Ms. Sharon Gless
Gregory Harrison
Meredith Hagner
Sebastian Koch
Hugh Dillon
Archie Panjabi


Happy Birthday guys. God bless.

Sandrine Bonnaire



Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Tom Berenger

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Marissa Mayer, Ms. Deanna Lund, Fahim Fazli, Julie Fernandez and Bob Yari

Happy Birthday guys. God bless.


Wynonna Judd, Harry Enfield, Jennifer Ellison, Jason Vail, Mr. Clint Walker, Jenny Mollen, Mr. Michael J. Pollard, Mark Sheppard, Rachael Stirling, Idina Menzel and Stephen Tobolowsky

Happy Birthday guys. God bless.

Tom Morello

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Elyssa Davalos

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Joachim Rønning

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Ms. Agnès Varda

Happy Birthday Ms. Varda. God bless you.

Ingrid Visser and Louis Severein We Salute You Guys

MURCIA - Secondo quanto riportato da El Pais, in una conferenza stampa tenutasi nel pomeriggio da Cirilo Durán, capo della Polizia di Murcia, alla base del doppio omicidio della coppia olandese Visser-Severin ci sono stati "disaccordi" di natura economica con i presunti colpevoli.

Tre gli arrestati per questo caso, tra questi anche un ex dirigente del club spagnolo di Murcia dove la centrale olandese ha giocato tra il 2009 e il 2011.

Nel corso della conferenza stampa il capo della Polizia di Murcia non ha rivelato dettagli circa l'origine di questi disaccordi, ma è stato raccontato che Ingrid Visser e il compagno hanno incontrato i presunti assassini in almeno due dei giorni della loro permanenza spagnola, il 13 e 14 maggio.

Quindi ne è seguito un incontro in una casa a Molina de Segura per "motivi di lavoro". In quel momento l'incontro si è trasformato in un acceso scambio che ha portato all'uccisione della coppia olandese - in modo violento, ribadiscono le indagini della Polizia - quindi gli autori del doppio omicidio hanno cercato di seppellire i corpi in un limoneto vicino ad una casa in via Serafín de Alba, nella frazione Alquerías, a Murcia.

Il Commissario Durán ha poi sottolineato che "le autorità olandesi hanno fornito i contatti a Murcia di quando Visser era giocatrice", contatti molto utili per lo sviluppo delle indagini. "Questo non vuol dire che il club è coinvolto, ma sto valutando le relazioni nel periodo del suo soggiorno sportivo a Murcia".

Uno dei tre detenuti è il valenziano Juan Cuenca Lorente, come detto, per molti anni gestore e direttore tecnico del Club Atlético Voleibol Murcia 2005, società dell'uomo di affari Evedasto Lifante.

Cuenca entrò nel club murciano quando era nell'Universidad de Valencia Voley, fino alla chiusura del club di due anni fa, per colpa della crisi economica. Il dirigente era colui che gestiva i conti de club.

Il mondo dello sport di Murcia lo conosceva come la persona che gestiva il club. Negli anni finali della gestione delle squadre di pallavolo e calcetto alcuni giocatori hanno lamentato mancati pagamenti così come parecchi hotel nella città di Murcia vantano ingenti somme di denaro, tra cui il Churra hotel dove era alloggiata la coppia olandese.




*We extend our sympathy to their family, relatives, friends and fans.
*RIP



source:volleyball.it

Ted McGinley

Happy Birthday. God bless.

CeeLo Green

Happy Birthday. God bless.

George Michael by Rebecca Macatee

Good news for George Michael.
The 49-year-old singer "has been discharged from hospital and continues to rest and recuperate" from his car accident May 16, a statement on his official website said yesterday.
The statement also noted that the "I Want Your Sex" singer "is well and thanks everyone for all the messages of support."

Michael was a passenger in a Range Rover on the crowded M1 motorway near St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England, when the vehicle was involved in a traffic accident. His rep issued a statement at the time confirming Michael was hospitalized for "superficial cuts and bruises" but was "fine."
Just last week, his rep told Reuters he remained in the hospital "but purely as a standard precaution for observation because he suffered some bumps and cuts to his head."
We're glad to hear he's on the mend!


*Thank God.

source:eonline.com

Keir Dullea

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Colm Meaney

Happy Birthday. God bless.

The Beatles - Here Comes the Sun


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BxzEeKfpyIg

Comments:Not suitable for kids

Mr. Joe Brown - Here Comes The Sun

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zK9feDeuoiY


Comments:Not suitable for kids

Here Comes the Sun: A Tribute to George Harrison by Paul Simon, David Crosby and Graham Nash


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=muFOeZSIC2U


Here Comes The Sun - Bon Jovi

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pjrX4bg9upw

Sandy Farina - Here Comes The Sun

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MyAg40ehPj0

The Beatles - Here Comes the Sun

Here comes the sun, doo doo doo doo
Here comes the sun, and I say
It's alright

Little darling
It's been a long, cold, lonely winter
Little darling
It feels like years since it's been here

Here comes the sun
Here comes the sun, and I say
It's alright

Little darling
The smiles returning to the faces
Little darling
It seems like years since it's been here

Here comes the sun
Here comes the sun, and I say
It's alright

Sun, sun, sun, here it comes
Sun, sun, sun, here it comes
Sun, sun, sun, here it comes
Sun, sun, sun, here it comes
Sun, sun, sun, here it comes

Little darling
I feel like the ice is slowly melting
Little darling
It seems like years since it's been clear

Here comes the sun, here comes the sun and i say,
It's alright

Here comes the sun, here comes the sun and i say,
It's alright


source:sing365.com

Pariser Elysée-Palast versteigert Weinkeller

Rund 1200 Weinflaschen aus dem Keller des französischen Präsidentenpalastes werden am heute und Freitag in Paris versteigert. Mit der Versteigerung - einer Premiere in der Geschichte des Elysée-Palastes - sollen die Weinbestände erneuert werden. Es sollen preiswertere Weine nachgekauft werden, der mit der Versteigerung erzielte Überschuss soll in die klamme französische Staatskasse fließen. Der Weinkeller des Elysée-Palasts zählt rund 12.000 Flaschen, darunter zahlreiche Spitzenweine.

Bei der Versteigerung sollen die einzelnen Flaschen zwischen 20 und 2500 Euro einbringen. Angeboten werden Tropfen vor allem aus den Regionen Bordeaux und Bourgogne, es gibt aber auch Weine aus dem Elsass, dem Loire-Tal und dem Rhône-Tal. Die älteste Flasche ist ein Château Latour aus dem Jahr 1936.


source:de.nachrichten.yahoo.com

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

Ana Beatriz Barros

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Danny Elfman, Mr. Clifton James, Aura Garrido, Tracey E. Bregman, Anita Briem, Melanie Brown, Lisa Whelchel, Richard Lee Jackson, LaToya Jackson, Nick Mancuso, Riley Keough, Adrian Paul, Zulay Henao and Paloma Kwiatkowski

Happy Birthday guys. God bless.

Helmut Berger

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Robert Axelrod

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Rupert Everett

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Ted Levine

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Annette Bening

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Tom Petty And The Heartbreakers - The Waiting

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uMyCa35_mOg

Comments:Not suitable for kids

Tom Petty And The Heartbreakers - The Waiting

Oh, baby, don't it feel like heaven right now
Don't it feel like something from a dream
Yeah, I've never known nothing quite like this
Don't it feel like tonight might never be again
Baby, we know better than to try and pretend
Honey, no one could've ever told me 'bout this
I said yeah yeah (yeah yeah)
Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah

The waiting is the hardest part
Every day you see one more card
You take it on faith, you take it to the heart
The waiting is the hardest part

Well, yeah, I might have chased a couple women around
All it ever got me was down
Yeah, then there were those that made me feel good
But never as good as I feel right now
Baby, you're the only one that's ever known how
To make me wanna live like I wanna live now
I said yeah yeah (yeah yeah)
Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah



The waiting is the hardest part
Every day you get one more yard
You take it on faith, you take it to the heart
The waiting is the hardest part

Oh, don't let it kill you, baby, don't let it get to you
Don't let it kill you, baby, don't let it get to you
I'll be your bleedin' heart, I'll be your cryin' fool
Don't let this go too far, don't let it get to you

Yeah yeah (yeah yeah)
Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah

The waiting is the hardest part
Every day you get one more yard
You take it on faith, you take it to the heart
The waiting is the hardest part

Yeah, the waiting is the hardest part

Whoa, it's the hardest part
Whoa, it's the hardest part



source:elyrics.net

The Beatles -"Sea Of Holes"

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1R8Gcb8tY78

Comments:Not suitable for kids

Roland-Garros : Maria Kirilenko, l'autre touche glamour du tennis russe




source:yahoo.fr/AFP

Roland-Garros : Maria Kirilenko, l'autre touche glamour du tennis russe





source:yahoo.fr/AFP

Roland-Garros : Maria Kirilenko, l'autre touche glamour du tennis russe





source:yahoo.fr/AFP

Roland-Garros : Maria Kirilenko, l'autre touche glamour du tennis russe





source:yahoo.fr/AFP

Roland-Garros : Maria Kirilenko, l'autre touche glamour du tennis russe




source:yahoo.fr/AFP

Roland-Garros : Maria Kirilenko, l'autre touche glamour du tennis russe




source:yahoo.fr/AFP

Tuesday, May 28, 2013

Margaret Colin

Last May 26, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Bella Heathcote

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Peri Gilpin

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Joseph Fiennes

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Mr. Christopher Lee

Happy Birthday Mr. Lee. God bless you.

Denise Van Outen

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Paul Bettany

Happy Birthday. God bless.

John Fogerty

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Jean-Pierre Léaud

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Ms. Carroll Baker

Happy Birthday Ms. Baker. God bless you.

Sondra Locke

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Kylie Minogue

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Alexa Davalos

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Leah Ayres

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Chiara Mastroianni

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Branko Djuric

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Christian Alvart

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Isabelle Carré

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Memorial Day

http://www.care2.com/send/card/4637

Christa Miller

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Gisele Bündchen by Lily Harrison

Gisele Bündchen is arguably one of the most beautiful women in the world, and she's come to accept and love the few flaws that she may have.
The Brazilian model admitted to Fashionista that her latest campaign with Johan Lindeberg for BLK DNM was shot without any professional hair and makeup (or Photoshop!).
"I loved his approach because I feel like women should be really real and raw," she said.

"I love that feeling of, you know, we are women, we are so different, our imperfections are what makes us unique and beautiful. [Lindeberg's] not trying to retouch you or put a pretty light on you."
Let's be honest—when you look as gorgeous as Bündchen, you don't need any help in the beauty department anyway!


source:eonline.com

Romain Duris

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Carey Mulligan

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Saturday, May 25, 2013

Eva Longoria au festival de Cannes





source:ozap.com

Eva Longoria au festival de Cannes




source:ozap.com

Eva Longoria au festival de Cannes




source:ozap.com

Jane Wiedlin

Last May 20, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Matt McCoy

Last May 20, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Mr. Anthony Zerbe

Last May 20, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday Mr. Zerbe. God bless.

Bronson Pinchot

Last May 20, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Jack Gleeson

Last May 20, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Busta Rhymes

Last May 20, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Jana Pallaske

Last May 20, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Agnes Kittelsen

Last May 20, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Frank Medrano

Last May 20, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Joe Cocker

Last May 20, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Mark Christopher Lawrence

Last May 22, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Mr. Charles Aznavour

Last May 22, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday Mr. Aznavour. God bless.

MC Eiht

Last May 22, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Michael Lockwood

Last May 22, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Morrissey

Last May 22, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Gary Sweet

Last May 22, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Mr. Michael Constantine

Last May 22, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday Mr. Constantine. God bless.

Hank Williams Jr.

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Lenny Kravitz

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Pam Grier

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Elisabeth Harnois

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Bobcat Goldthwait

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Helena Bonham Carter

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Lisa Niemi Swayze

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Lauryn Hill

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Rachael Blake

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Stevie Nicks

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Mr. Jacques Bergerac

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday Mr. Bergerac.

God bless.

Astrid Bergès-Frisbey

Tomorrow is your birthday.

Happy Birthday.

God bless.

Molly Sims



Happy Birthday. God bless.

source:imdb.com

Barbara Schulz




Happy Birthday. God bless.

source:imdb.com

May 25, 2013

Ms. Leslie Uggams
Connie Sellecca
Patti D'Arbanville
Anne Consigny
Ray Stevenson
Ethan Suplee
Anne Heche
Frank Oz
Justin Henry
Jamie Kennedy
Cinjun Tate
Susan Diol
Joseph D. Reitman
Jossara Jinaro



Happy Birthday guys. God bless.


Esmé Bianco




Happy Birthday. God bless.

source:imdb.com

Jacki Weaver

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Cillian Murphy

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Mike Myers

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Mr. Ian McKellen

Happy Birthday Mr. McKellen. God bless.

Octavia Spencer




Happy Birthday. God bless.

source:imdb.com

Jennifer Aniston




source:eonline.com

Jennifer Aniston




source:eonline.com

We're the Millers by Natalie Finn




How to go about smuggling "a smidge of pot" from Mexico into the United States?

Well, first get a stripper to play your wife—and make sure the conveniently hot and brainy stripper is played by a platinum-wig-wearing, lingerie-rocking Jennifer Aniston!

The first official trailer for the comedy We're the Millers was released today and it promises to provide more than a few ounces of raunchy fun for the 17-and-older members of the family.

In the film, Ed Helms' snaky drug kingpin asks small-time pot dealer Jason Sudeikis to go down to Mexico to transport a "smidge of mari-ju-wana" (word of the day is smidge) back to the States.

Well, a smiling, all-American family of four looks better to Border Patrol than one shaggy-haired dope, right? So Sudeikis gets his stripper neighbor to pose as his wife and "this dork who lives in his building" (Will Poulter) and a "gutter punk" (Emma Roberts) to be their kids in order to make it look like they're just heading home from vacation.

Complications ensue, they end up on the run and, at one point, Jen and Jason's makeshift couple end up hitching a ride with aspiring swingers played by Nick Offerman and Kathryn Hahn.

But that's really the least of their worries. And, let's just say, Jen's stripper skills come in handy down the road.

We're the Millers lights up theaters on Aug. 9.



source:eonline.com

Olivia Munn by Peter Gicas

For Olivia Munn, news of the tornado in her native Oklahoma has been "devastating" to say the least.

"All the stories of all those children, I think that's what gets everybody every time, the children just losing their lives and it's so sad," the actress tells E! News during a visit to The Newsroom set on Thursday.

But the 32-year-old star has also observed the good that has shined through amidst the tragedy.

"It's not surprising at all to see all of the heroism and all of the love that just pours in from everybody in Oklahoma," she says. "That's just how Oklahoma is. I mean, you see someone on the news and nobody wants to take credit for being a hero. Nobody wants to let a person sit on the floor crying. Nobody wants to leave another person behind that's injured. That's just the Oklahoma way."

Munn adds, "It's been really devastating and sad, but at the same time, you get so filled with hope when you see the love that people can have for each other."


source:eonline.com

Mel B by Peter Gicas




Talk about spicing things up!

Mel B did just that when she flaunted her fabulous figure in a two-piece on a yacht in Cannes on Wednesday.

The former Spice Girl was seen soaking in the sun with handsome husband Stephen Belafonte.

Earlier in the week, the America's Got Talent judge and her man attended a private dinner at Plage Royale.

Sure, the couple may have worn a bit more clothing for that event, but they looked equally hot.



source:eonline.com/Gotcha Images /Splash News

The Doors - Touch Me

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PECk9A-07Pw

Comments:Not suitable for kids

The Doors - Touch Me

Come on, come on, come on, come on
Now touch me, baby
Can't you see that I am not afraid?
What was that promise that you made?
Why won't you tell me what she said?
What was that promise that you made?

Now, I'm gonna love you
Till the heavens stop the rain
I'm gonna love you
Till the stars fall from the sky for you and I


Now touch me, baby
Can't you see that I am not afraid?
What was that promise that you made?
Why won't you tell me what she said?
What was that promise that you made?

I'm gonna love you
Till the heavens stop the rain
I'm gonna love you
Till the stars fall from the sky for you and I
I'm gonna love you
Till the heavens stop the rain
I'm gonna love you
Till the stars fall from the sky for you and I



source:sing365.com

11th Century

This was a major century for the Vikings; the Great Schism (1054) between
the Western (Roman Catholic) and Eastern Orthodox churches; the
Norman Conquest (1066) of England; the Spanish leader El Cid conquering the
city of Valencia from the Moors; the First Crusade capturing Jerusalem;
the invention and use of military rockets in China; and the birth of a
major literary form: Murasaki Shikibu's "The Tale of Genji"
which is usually considered as the first novel.

According to D.E. Smith, "Just how much influence the passing of the first
Christian millennium had upon the common people it is difficult to say.
Historians pay much less attention to the 'terreur de l'an Mil'
[terror of the Year 1000] than was formerly the case. It is not probable
that many educated persons took literally the biblical remark relating to
the period of a thousand years, but it is certain that it was so taken by
some. At any rate, the passing of this milestone saw the Christian world
aroused to new interests."
"Then, too, there were the Crusades (1095-c.1270), which have been
called 'the first Renaissance,' and one which did for a civilization
that had long been dormant one thing which the World War[s] did for
the civilization of the 20th century,--it let one part of the race
know more of what other parts were doing and thinking and hoping.
It was war, but it was in genral beyond the boundaries of intellectual
Europe."
"There was also the potent influence in Europe of a foreign and
highly developed civilization in her midst,-- the Saracen supremecy in
Spain; and it was the Saracen scholars who made known to Latin scholars
the best of the Greek and Oriental civilizations."
"Moreover, Europe was seeing the folly of her private wars, the
'Truce of God' was beginning to make its power felt, and the blessings of
peace were once more settling upon France and her neighbors, rendering
intellectual pursuits possible."
"To these influences there should be added that of the Norman Conquest,
which, without prolonged warfare, awakened and united England, and showed
her what the Continent had for her in the way of science and art."
"As a result of such influences, Europe entered upon a new era, one in
which cathedral building, church reform, renewed attention to the arts,
political experiment, and scientific achievement played great parts."
[D.E. Smith, p.194]

The three great Scientists or Scholars of the Century, were:
* the Arab known as Alhazen [Abu 'Ali Al-Hasan ibn Al-Haytham],
* the Persian poet/astronomer/mathematician Omar Khayyam, and
* Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II).

The Chinese invent moveable type, and gunpowder.
Needless to say, both of these had growing influence in centuries to come.


Gerbert


The 11th Century was still dominated by the spirit of the earlier centuries
of the Middle Ages, 'when faith overpowered intelligence' and 'authority
became the enemy of investigation,' when 'scholar degenerated into
schoolmen' and 'science lost itself in the morasses of alchemy or
astrology and became anathema to the faithful.'
[W.C. Abbott, The Expansion of Europe, I, chapter i, New York, 1918]

"This is seen in the attitude of the learned world toward that remarkable
churchman and scholar, Gerbert [born near Aurillac, in Auvergne, c.950;
died at Rome, May 12, 1003. The name is pronounced zher-bar, who was]
one of the greatest popes that ever added lustre to the Church and to the
city of Rome. Elevated to the Papal throne, he reigned under the name of
Sylvester II from 999 to 1003. He was born of humble parents ['obscuro
loco natum'], but his natural brilliany led to his call to study under the
monks at Aurillac, and particularly under such a worthy scholar as Abbo of
Fleury, and his being sent to Spain (967) to perfect his education. About
970 he went to Italy, where he was presented to the Pope and by him to th
Emperor, returning to France in 972. He held various offices in the
Church, and in 999 was elected to the papacy. He was a man of great
learning, was 'accused--our learning's fate--of wizardry,' combated error,
aroused new interest in mathematics, acquired a knowledge of the
Hindu-Arabic numerals, gave some attention to the study of astrology (a
subject then looked upon as a worthy science), and wrote on arithmetic,
geometry, and other mathematical subjects, particularly on the astrolabe."
[D.E. Smith, pp.195-196]

"Of the mathematical pupils of Gerbert, the most prominent was Bernelinus
of Paris, who wrote an arithmetic (Liber Abaci) in which he further
explained Gerbert's counters. A litle later (c.1028) Guido of Arezzo
(Aretinus), a Benedictine monk from Pomposa, near Ferrara, wrote an
arithmetic. About the same time (c.1066) Franco of Liege did the same and,
what was not so common at this time, wrote on the quadrature of the
circle. Among his contemporaries was Wilhelm, abbot of Hirschau
(1026-1091), who taught mathematics and astronomy."

"The most prominent of the successors of Gerbert in the 11th Century was
Hermannus (1013-1054), son of the Swabian Count Wolverad. His limbs having
been painfully contracted from childhood, he is known in history as
Hermannus Contractus. Educated in the monastic school at Reichenau, he
afterwards joined the Benedictine order, became a lecturer on mathematics,
and gathered about him a large number of pupils." [D.E. Smith, p.197] He wrote:
* on the astrolabe
* on the abacus
* on the number game rithmomachia {more on this oddity to be done}

Minor Church Writers:
* Byrhtferth (or Bridferth), who wrote on the calendar (circa 1000)
* St.Gall
* Notker Labeo (c.950-1022)


Moors


"After the year 1000 numerous Moorish scholars appeared in Spain and
contributed to the literature of arithmetic and astronomy, and
occasionally to that of algebra." [D.E. Smith, p.205] These included:
* Ibn al-Saffar, a native of Cordova, who wrote on
astronomical tables and instruments
* Ibn al-Zarqala, of Cordova, who wrote on
astronomy and astrology, and prepared a set of tables
* Abu'l-Salt, Spanish physician from Denia, who wrote
in the late 11th century on geometry and astronomy
* Jabir ibn Aflah (died between 1140 and 1150), commonly
known as Geber, who flourished at Seville and wrote on
astronomy, spherical trigonometry, and the transversal theorem
of Menelaus. He is often confused with an alchemist of similar
name.


Jews


"The most learned scholars in Spain at the close of the 11th Century...
were not Mohammedans. The Jewish race... was generally accorded better
treatment under Saracen than Christian rule, although it had flourished
somewhat in Italy before this time. Through the encouragement received
from the Moors, the Jews contributed in no small part to the advance of
mathematics in Spain, and to them the Christians were indebted for their
first knowledge of the Arabic works on the subject." [D.E. Smith, p.206]

The foremost of these Jewish scholars: Abraham bar Chiia [Abraham Judaeus],
commonly known as Savasorda [c.1070-c.1136]. He wrote:
* works of Astronomy
* an encyclopedia of arithmetic, geometry, and mathematical geography
* Liber Embadorum, on geometry and number theory, which accuses
French Jews of being ignorant of geometry, and thus of arithmetic
(later translated from Hebrew to Latin by Plato of Tivoli).


Byzantine Mathematical Philosopher


In the 11th Century, there was only one significant mathematical scholar of
Constantinople, Michael Constantine Psellus (1020-1110), "a Greek writer
who studied at Athens, became a zealous Neoplatonist, and returned to
Constantinople to teach philosophy. He lived during the reign of several
rulers, consulted by the emperors and honored by them with the title of
Prince of Philosophers. An introduction to the study of Nicomachus and
Euclid is attributed to him, but the authorship is doubtful. Partly
because of the fact that he was almost the last of the Greek writers on
mathematics, partly because of his reputation for learning in general, he
is one of the few scholars of his time whose contributions attracted any
attention in the Renaissance period. His leading works on mathematics
were published at least 13 times in the 16th Century. The fact that he
takes [the square root of 8] as a value for [pi] shows how little he
merited his reputation as a scientist." [D.E. Smith pp.197-198]



Anglo-Saxon Chronicle


Perhaps the most impressive web site on one geographic slice of the 11th
century is "The Avalon Project" of the Yale School of Law.
The following is the address of thier Modern English translation of the great
Middle English Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" :
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: Eleventh Century


Century of the Sword
"As the second millennium began on the Eurasian continent, vibrant civilizations were
concentrated in China, India, and the Islamic World. The sword symbolizes the 11th
century, not because the 11th was any more violent than other centuries of the
millennium, but because it was riven by fundamental divisions within and between many
cultures. Among these divisions were conflicts between China and her neighbors, conflicts
connected with the expansion of Islam, and conflicts within the Christian world.

"The sword also represents cleavage, separation, and insularity. Such was the case in
Japan, where ties with outside cultures were diminishing or virtually non-existent.
Yet despite violence and separation, the 11th century was marked by vibrancy, creativity,
and a great deal of cultural transfer, especially in the Islamic World and in East Asia."

"As the world began a new millennium in the 11th century, only within Christendom did the
word 'Millennium' have much significance. Only there was chronology counted from
Christ's birth. The rest of the world marked time in other ways, a fact which symbolizes
the world's cultural and regional disconnectedness during this period: although cultures
met, touched, interacted, and exchanged, for the most part they remained separated and
separate. Looking at Eurasia, there were in the 11th century four great cultural
constellations -- China, the Muslim World, India, and Christendom. China considered
herself the center of the universe, dominant in the world of technology, and home to a
vibrant internal market and culture. When outsiders attacked, China often survived by
absorbing her enemies rather than beating them on the battlefield. Yet, China was set off
from the rest of the world by barriers, some geographical like the Takla Makan
Desert."

"Meanwhile, Islam expanded, absorbed and preserved Greco-Roman science and arts, and then
produced a brilliant synthesis of Islamic and neighboring cultures. Such a cultural
fusion is richly reflected in the Spanish city of Cordoba. India, to the east, was also
affected by Islamic travellers and conquerors who occupied northern India in 1000 AD.
Eleventh century India, a relic of a former great civilization that had produced two
world religious traditions was, at one time, at the forefront of the sciences. Nowhere,
except perhaps Ireland, in the 11th century is isolation more evident than in Japan.
After centuries of borrowing from China, Japan in the 11th century solidified her
imperial tradition in splendid isolation. Separation occurred also within Christendom.
In 1054, a split that had been brewing for centuries, finally forever divided
Christendom between East and West, Orthodox and Catholic. The East became more
vulnerable to Islam while the West entered the second millennium unencumbered, ready to
begin the creation of a dynamic new society that formulated institutions and ways of
thought that were destined to change the course of world history."

[from the CNN Television miniseries "MillenniuM",
� 1999 Turner Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Major Books of the Decade 1000-1010


A 360-day year calendar, divided into 12 months of 27 or 28 days,
is introduced in India. Since this falls 5.2425 days short of an
actual year, the Indians add an extra month at regular intervals;
it is also possible that they use months of 30 days, still falling
short of the actual length of the year. [Hellemans, p.72]

In China, coal is burned for fuel. [Hellemans, p.72]

The 7-day week is introduced to China by Persians (or perhaps by
merchants from Central Asia). Prior to this, the most common week in
China was 10-days. [Hellemans, p.72]

The Arabs introduce the lemon plant to Sicily and Spain. [Hellemans, p.72]

The Vikings, led by Leif Ericson (Leif, son of Eric the Red), reach North America
[Hellemans, p.72]

c.1000 Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II) writes a major book on
Arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

Avicenna (ibn Sina, born near Bukhara, 980) writes
The Canon of Medicine, in five volumes. It treats Greek and Arab medicine
so thoroughly as to dominate medical eduction in Europe until the
17th Century. [Hellemans, p.72]

c.1000 Avicenna writes major book on Geometry;
and another book on arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

c.1000 Al-Majriti writes on Geometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

c.1000 Hamid ibn al-Khidr writes on Algebra, and on
the Astrolabe. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

c.1000 Al-Majriti writes on Geometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

c.1000 Al-Hasan (al-Haitam) of Basra writes on Geometry;
and again on algebra. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

c.1000 Mansur ibn 'Ali writes on Trigonometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

c.1000 Byrhtferth writes on the Calendar. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

c.1000 Ibn Yunis writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

c.1000 Alberuni writes a major work on Hindu mathematics.
[D.E. Smith, p.557]

985-1025 Personal rule of Basil II.
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1000 Iceland officially converts to Christianity, although
heathen practice is still permitted in private.
The Viking Answer Lady Webpage

1000 Olafr Tryggvasson dies. The Viking Answer Lady Webpage

ca.1000-1005 Leifr Eiriksson makes his voyages to Vinland (America), attempts made to
settle there are prevented by opposition from skraelings
(Native Americans). The Viking Answer Lady Webpage

1001-5 Renewed campaign against Bulgars under Khan (now Tsar) Samuel
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1001: Mahmud Ghazanavi defeats the Hindu Shahis.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

12 May 1003 Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II), French scholar, dies in Rome
[Hellemans, p.72]
Gerbert born near Aurillac, in Auvergne, c.950;
died at Rome, May 12, 1003. [The name is pronounced zher-bar]. He was
one of the greatest popes that ever added lustre to the Church and to the
city of Rome. Elevated to the Papl throne, he reigned under the name of
Sylvester II from 999 to 1003. D.E. Smith, p.195]

1004: Mahmud captures Bhatiya.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1005 Dar al-ilm, a science library in Cairo, Egypt, is founded.
[Hellemans, p.72]

1005: Mahmud captures Multan and Ghur.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1005 Byzantine recovery of Durazzo (with aid of Chryselioi)
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1006 A supernova, or "guest star", is reported in China, Japan,
Europe, and Arab lands; it remains visible for several years. [Hellemans, p.72]

1008 The large astronomical tables of al-Hakim by Ibn Yunus.
These "Hakimitic tables", named after Caliph al-Hakim, honor the
ruler who built an important observatory (completed in 1008) contain
accurate astronomical and mathematical tables based on 200 years of
(naked eye) observations. These tables are later used in Arab
astronomy. [Hellemans, p.72]

1008: Mahmud defeats the Rajput confederacy.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1010: Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. Accession of Muhammad.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1010-1020 AD


The Arab scientist known as Alhazen, named Abu 'Ali Al-Hasan ibn Al-Haytham
[born in Basra, now Iraq, ca.965] correctly explains how lenses work,
and develops parabolic mirrors, similar to those used in today's
reflecting telescopes. [Hellemans, p.72]

1010: Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. Accession of Muhammad.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1011: In Spain Muhammad is overthrown by Sulaiman.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1012: In Spain power is captured by Bani Hamud.
Death of the Buwayhid Baha ud Daula, accession of Sultan ud Daula.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1013 Birth of the most prominent of the successors of Gerbert in the
11th Century, Hermannus (1013-1054), son of the Swabian Count Wolverad.
His limbs having been painfully contracted from childhood, he is known
in history as Hermannus Contractus. Educated in the monastic
school at Reichenau, he afterwards joined the Benedictine order, became
a lecturer on mathematics, and gathered about him a large number of
pupils." [D.E. Smith, p.197] He wrote:
* on the astrolabe
* on the abacus
* on the number game rithmomachia

1014-18 Further campaign against the Bulgars; Basil II advances
to the capital Ohrid, wins major defeat, visits Athens to give
thanks to Virgin and celebrates a triumph at Constantinople
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1016: Death of the Zirrid ruler Nasir ud Daula Badis;
accession of Al Muizz.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1016 Ard-Righ Brian Boru defeats the Norse in Ireland at the battle of Clontarf,
both Brian and Jarl Sigurdhr of Orkney are slain.
The Viking Answer Lady Webpage

1018-ca. 1081 Michael Psellos
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1018: In Spain power is captured by Abdul Rahman IV.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1019: Conquest of the Punjab by Mahmud Ghazanavi.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1020: The Buwayhid Sultan ud Daula is Overthrown by Musharaf ud Daula,
Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Hakim, accession of Al Zahir.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1020-1030 AD


c.1020 Al-Karkhi writes a major book on Algebra.
[D.E. Smith, p.557]

c.1020 Bernelinus writes on Arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

c.1020 Sridhara writes on Arithmetic. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

c.1020 Death of Firdusi, Persian poet. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1021-22 Basil II campaigns in Armenia and Georgia
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1024: In Spain assassination of Abdul Rahman IV, accession of Mustafi.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1025: Death of the Buwayhid Mushgraf ud Daula, accession of Jalal ud Daula.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1025 Plans for the reconquest of Sicily from Arab control
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1025 Death of Basil II, his brother Constantine VIII rules alone
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1025 Al-Nasavi writes major book on Greek mathematics. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1025 Ibn al-Saffar writes Astronomical tables. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1025-36 Pecheneg incursions in northern Balkans
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1026 Birth of Gerbert's student Wilhelm, abbot of Hirschau
(1026-1091), who taught mathematics and astronomy." [D.E. Smith, p.197]

1027-8 Western embassy negotiates Byzantine bride for Conrad II
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

c.1028 A student of Gerbert, Guido of Arezzo (Aretinus),
a Benedictine monk from Pomposa, near Ferrara, wrote an arithmetic.
[D.E. Smith, p.197]

1028 Constantine VIII's daughter Zoe marries Romanos Argyros
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1028 Two days later Constantine dies, Zoe and Romanos acclaimed as imperial rulers
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1029 Norman forces established at Aversa, southern Italy
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1029: In Spain death of Mustaft, accession of Hisham III.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1030 Romanos III suffers defeat by Emir of Aleppo
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1030: Death of Mahmud Ghazanavi.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1030-1040 AD


Al-Biruni writes History of India, giving a general account (based on
various sources) of the history of India. [Hellemans, p.72]

1030 King Olaf the Saint is killed at Stiklestad.
The Viking Answer Lady Webpage

1031: In Spain deposition of Hisharn III,
and end of the Umayyad rule. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qadir,
accession of Al Qaim.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1031-2 Byzantine forces under George Maniakes capture Edessa, force the
Emir of Aleppo to become a vassal of the empire
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1034 Romanos murdered, Zoe marries Michael the Paphlagonian, brother of
finance minister, John the Orphanotrophos
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1034-41 Reign of Michael IV
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1035 Truce between Byzantium and Arab Sicily
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1035 Death of Ibn al-Saffar, a native of Cordova, who wrote on
astronomical tables and instruments. His full name was Ahmed ibn
'Abdallah ibn 'Omar al-Gafiqi, Abu'l-Qasim.

1035 A Chinese painting shows the use of a spinning wheel. [Hellemans, p.73]

1036: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Zahir, accession of Mustansir.
Tughril Beg is crowned as the king of the Seljuks.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

June 1037 Death of the great Persian physician Avicenna in Hamadan (Iran)
[Hellemans, p.73]

1037-40 Byzantine reconquest of Sicily under George Maniakes
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1037 Death of the great Arab physicist Alhazen in Cairo (Egypt)
[Hellemans, p.73]

ca.1040 Zoe "adopts" Michael, nephew of Michael IV, and proclaims him caesar,
with right to inherit the throne
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

ca. 1040 Seljuk Turks threaten the Byzantino-Armenian border
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1040: Battle of Dandanqan, the Seljuks defeat the Ghazanavids.
Deposition of Masud the Ghazanavid Sultan, accession of Muhammad.
Al Moravidscome to power in North Africa.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1040-1050 AD


1040-1049 In China, the obscure commoner Pi Sheng invents
movable type (centuries before Gutenberg). [Hellemans, p.75]

1040-1 Revolt in Bulgaria led by Peter Delian, who lays siege to Thessalonike;
defeated by Michael IV
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1041 Death of Michael IV, succeeded by his nephew Michael V
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1041: The Ghazanavid Sultan Muhammad is overthrown by Maudud.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1041-2 Byzantine revolt in southern Italy in Norman alliance
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1041-1048 In China Tseng Kung-Liang publishes the first instructions
for the manufacture of three versions of gunpowder. [Hellemans, p.75]

1042 Edward the Confessor becomes King of England. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1042 Michael V exiles John the Orphanotrophos and confines Zoe to a nunnery;
popular riots in Constantinople acclaim Zoe and her sister
Theodora empresses; Michael V blinded and deposed
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1042 Zoe marries Constantine Monomachos (her fourth marriage, which
provokes ecclesiastical protest)
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1042-55 Reign of Constantine IX
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1042-3 Revolt of George Maniakes, proclaimed emperor by his troops
in southern Italy, killed in battle in Macedonia
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1043 Russian attack on Constantinople
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1043-5 University of Constantinople reorganized under
Michael Psellos (philosophy) and George Xiphilinos (law)
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1043-58 Patriarch Michael Keroularios (Cerularius)
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1043-6 Normans under Robert Guiscard plunder central Italy
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1044: Death of the Buwayhid Jalal ud Daula, accession of Abu Kalijar.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1046: Basasiri captures power in Baghdad.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1047 Revolt of John Vatatzes and Leo Tornikes
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1047 First debates over use of unleavened bread (azymes) in communion
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1047: The Zirids in North Africa repudiate allegiance to the Fatimid
and transfer allegiance to-the Abbasids.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1048 Seljuk invasion in Armenia defeated
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1048-53 Pechenegs cross the Danube, devastate Thrace and take Preslav;
Byzantium forced to bestow land, gifts and court titles to obtain peace;
John Mauropous writes in praise of 'bloodless victories'.
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1048: Death of the Buwayhid Abu Kalijar, accession of Malik ur Rahim.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1048 Death of the great Physicist, mathematician, and traveler Al-Biruni
[Hellemans, p.73]

1049-50 Emperor Henry III acknowledges Norman control in central Italy
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1050 Disgrace of prime minister Constantine Leichoudes and
exile of Psellos and his teacher John Mauropous
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1050 Death of Zoe, Constantine IX reigns alone
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1050: Yusuf b Tashfin comes to power in the Maghrib.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1050-1060


1050-1059 The Arabs introduce the decimal system into Spain. [Hellemans, p.75]

1050-1059 In China, some books are printed with movable type. [Hellemans, p.75]

1050-1108 ca. Theophylaktos Hephaistos, later archbishop of Ohrid (from ca. 1090)
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1050 Hermannus Contractus writes major books on Arithmetic; on the
Astrolabe. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1050 Chon Huo writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1050 Ibn al-Zarqala writes on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1050 Wilhelm of Hirschau is active as a teacher. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1054 Schism between churches of Rome and Constantinople over
unleavened bread (azymes) and celibate clergy; Niketas Stethatos attacks the
Roman use of Filioque clause ("and from the Son") in the creed
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

4 July 1054 The supernova that now forms the Crab Nebula is observed in
Japan, China, and the Arab lands, and stays visible in the sky for 22
months. [Hellemans, p.74]

1054 Death of the most prominent of the successors of Gerbert in the
11th Century, Hermannus (1013-1054), son of the Swabian Count Wolverad.
His limbs having been painfully contracted from childhood, he is known
in history as Hermannus Contractus. Educated in the monastic
school at Reichenau, he afterwards joined the Benedictine order, became
a lecturer on mathematics, and gathered about him a large number of
pupils." [D.E. Smith, p.197] He wrote:
* on the astrolabe
* on the abacus
* on the number game rithmomachia

1055 Death of Constantine IXMonomachos, Theodora reigns alone
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1055: Tughril Beg overthrows the Buwayhids.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1056 Theodora dies having adopted Michael Stratiotikes as her successor
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1056-7 Michael VI challenged by military leaders
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1057-9 Reign of Isaac I, member of military family of Komnenos
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1057 Robert Guiscard begins conquest of Calabria
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1057: Basasiri recaptures power in Baghdad, deposes Al Qaim
and offers allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1058 Embassy of Abbot Desiderius of Monte Cassino to Constantinople
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1058 Trial of Patriarch Keroularios, exiled
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1058-9 Seljuk leader Togrul elected Sultan and Emir of Baghdad, attacks Byzantium
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1059 Constitutions of Melfi: Pope Leo IX recognizes Norman authority in Italy
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1059: Tughril Beg recaptures power in Baghdad,
al Qaim is restored as the Caliph.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1059-63 Patriarch Constantine Leichoudes
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1059 Abdication of Isaac I, who designates Constantine Doukas as his successor
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1059-67 Emperor Constantine X
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1060 Normans conquer Calabria and begin attacks on Sicily
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1060-1070


1060: Ibrahim becomes the Sultan of Ghazni. Yusuf b Tashfin
founds the city of Marrakesh. The Zirids abandon their capital Ashir
and establish their capital at Bougie.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1062: Death of the Zirid ruler Al Muizz, accession of Tamin.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1063: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg; accession of Alp Arsalan.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1064 Magyars capture Belgrade
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1065-6 Sultan Alp-Arslan attacks Edessa, Caesarea, Cilicia
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1066 A large, bright comet is sighted; in England, it is associated
with the invasion of William the Conquerer. Today, we call it
Halley's Comet. [Hellemans, p.74]

1066 Haraldr Hardrada, king of Norway, is killed during an attempted invasion
of England fighting against Harold Godwinsson, the English king.
The Viking Answer Lady Webpage

1066 Harold Godwinsson is killed at Hastings by the forces of
Duke William (the Bastard) of Normandy.
The Viking Answer Lady Webpage
Better known in Great Britain as William the Conquerer, the victor of
the Battle of Hastings began the Norman domination of England.

1066 The Norman Conquest takes place.
The Viking Answer Lady Webpage

1066 The practice of "going viking" ends.
The Viking Answer Lady Webpage

c.1066 Franco of Liege, a student of Gerbert,
wrote an arithmetic and, what was not so common at this time,
wrote on the quadrature of the circle. [D.E. Smith, p.197]

1067 On death of Constantine X (in May) his three sons succeed under
the regency of mother Eudocia, with their uncle John Doukas and
Michael Psellos
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1067 Marriage of Eudocia to Romanos Diogenes (December)
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1069-71 Long campaign of Romanos Diogenes against Seljuk Turks,
successful at first but later disastrous
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1070-1080


ca.1070 birth of Jewish scholar in Spain, Abraham bar Chiia [Abraham Judaeus,
commonly known as Savasorda [c.1070-c.1136]. He wrote:
* works of Astronomy
* an encyclopedia of arithmetic, geometry, and mathematical geography
* Liber Embadorum, on geometry and number theory, which accuses
French Jews of being ignorant of geomrtey, and thus of arithmetic
(later translated from Hebrew to Latin by Plato of Tivoli).

1070-1089 Azrachel suggests that the orbits of the planets are ellipses,
anticipating Kepler by centuries. [Hellemans, p.74]

1085 Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain, an important
center of Arab learning, away from the Arabs. [Hellemans, p.74]

1071 Fall of Bari to Normans after three year siege;
Battle of Mantzikert, Romanos taken prisoner, ransomed for large sum
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1071: Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine emperor taken captive by the Seljuks.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1071 Senate deposes Romanos; Michael Doukas,
son of Constantine X, proclaimed emperor
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1071-8 Reign of Michael VII "Parapinakes"
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1072 Fall of Palermo and Sicily to Robert Guiscard
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1072-5 Negotiations between Michael VII and Robert Guiscard
for a marriage alliance. Simultaneous negotiations with Pope Gregory VII for
military alliance.
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1072-5 Pecheneg incursions in Balkans, with connivance of natives in Paristrion
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1073: Death of Alp Arsalan, accession of Malik Shah.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

ca.1075 Adam of Bremen writes Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum.
The Viking Answer Lady Webpage

1075 Psellus writes on the Quadrivium. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1075 Franco of Liege writes on Arithmetic and Geometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1076 Turkish incursions in Asia Minor
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1077 Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1077: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qaim, accession of Al Muqtadi.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1077 Revolt of Nikephoros Bryennios, duke of Durazzo,
proclaimed emperor at Adrianople
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1077 Benedictus Accolytus writes on the mathematical
board-game Rithmomachia. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1078 Revolt of Nikephoros Botaniates, domestikos of the scholai
in Asia Minor, proclaimed at Nicaea
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1078 Abdication of Michael VII in favour of his son Constantine,
but Nikephoros Botaniates crowned emperor
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1078-81 Reign of Nikephoros III, challenged by Robert Guiscard,
protector of Michael VII, excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1080 Revolt of Nikephoros Melissenos
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1080-1090


1080 ca. Seljuks under Suleiman create Sultanate of Rum in Asia Minor
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1081 Revolt of Alexios Komnenos, proclaimed emperor in Thrace,
allies with Nikephoros Melissenos, enters Constantinople and is crowned
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1081-1118 Reign of Alexios I Komnenos Komnenos 1081
Durazzo falls to Robert Guiscard; Normans enter Greece
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1082: The Al Moravids conquer Algeria.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1082 Alexios I concedes commercial privileges to Venice
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1082-3 Guiscard's son Bohemond conquers Macedonia, Thessaly and
besieges Larissa; retires to Kastoria and later to Italy
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1082 Trial and condemnation of John Italos for pagan philosophy
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1083 Alexios I's daughter Anna betrothed to Constantine Doukas,
son of Michael VII
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1083 China prints Liu Hui's classic. Block book. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1084 Norman fleet defeats Byzantine and Venetian forces off Corfu
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1084 China prints Ch'and K'iu-kien's arithmetic book. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1084 In China, the Wu ching tsung yao (Compendium of important
military techniques) by Tseng Kung-Liang describes a magnetized "iron
fish" that floats in water and can be used for finding south; about
this time the Chinese begin to use the compass for navigation, most
likely using this invention of the "iron fish." [Hellemans, p.75]

1085 Robert Guiscard dies; brother Roger Guiscard occupies Cephalonia
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1086 The Domesday Book lists 5,624 waterwheel-driven mills in England
south of Trent, or one mill for each 400 persons. [Hellemans, p.75]

1086: Battle of Zallakha. The Al Moravids defeat the
Christians in Spain. Death of the Rum Sejuk Sultan Sulaiman,
accession of Kilij Arsalan.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1086 The Dream Pool Essays by Shen Kua in China outlines the principles
of erosion, uplift, and sedimentation that are the foundations of
geology. It also has the first known reference to
the use of a magnetic compass for navigation. [Hellemans, pp.74-75]

1086-8 Pechenegs and Cumans invade Thrace, defeat Alexios I and
advance to Constantinople.� Alexios imposes truce
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1088-9 Negotiations to re-establish union between the churches;
patriarchal synod restores mention of popes in diptychs
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1090-1100


c.1090 Gerland, prior of St.Paul, wrote a computus and a brief work on
the abacus [D.E. Smith, p.205]

1090 Fortolfus writes on the mathematical
board-game Rithmomachia. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1090-1 Seljuk attacks on Bithynia; Tzachas leads piracy in Aegean;
Cumans and Pechenegs ally with Seljuk Turks
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1091: The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule.
Islamic History of the 11th Century
This ends roughly 200 years of Arabic rule of Sicily

1091 Alexios defeats Pechenegs at decisive battle of Lebounion (Levunium)
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1091 Death of Gerbert's student Wilhelm, abbot of Hirschau
(1026-1091), who taught mathematics and astronomy." [D.E. Smith, p.197]

1092 The finest mechanical achievement of the century, perhaps, is the
giant water clock and mechanical armillary sphere built in China
by Su Sung. [Hellemans, p.75]

1092 Alexios I names his son John caesar in place of Constantine Doukas�
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1092: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah, accession of Mahmud.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1092-4 Combined Turkish and Cuman raids, Diogenes revolt
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1092 Pope Urban II appeals for a crusade at Clermont
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1094: Death of Mahmud; accession of Barkiaruk. Death of the
Abbasid Caliph Al Muqtadi, accession ofMustahzir.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1095 Alexios I sends embassy to Council of Piacenza for
military alliance against the Turks
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1095: The First Crusade.
Islamic History of the 11th Century
The First Crusade is led by Pope Urban II, Peter the Hermit, and
Walter the Penniless; the goal is to capture Jerusalem from the
Arabs. [Hellemans, p.74]

1096-7 The First Crusade arrives at Constantinople
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1097 Alexios I marries daughter Anna to Nikephoros Bryennios
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1097 Crusaders capture Nicaea (Iznik)
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1098 After long siege Antioch falls to crusaders,
Bohemond proclaims himself prince of Antioch
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1099: The crusaders capture Jerusalem.
Islamic History of the 11th Century

1099 Jerusalem captured by crusaders, Godfrey of Bouillon
becomes Defender of the Holy Sepulchre, founds Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
The Byzantine Empire in the 11th Century

1100: King Henry I is crowned in England. [Helleman, p.74]
He reigns from 1100 to 1135, obtains control of Normandy, and incurs
endless difficulties in trying (and failing) to be succeeded by his
daughter Matilda (who is technically to inherit the throne, but the nobles
prevent her from taking power).

1100 Savasorda writes important book on Geometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1100 Omar Khayyam, the poet, writes important books on
Arithmetic and on Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1100 Abu'l-Salt writes on Geometry. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

1100 Walcherus writes on Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy. [D.E. Smith, p.557]

Other Key Dates and Stories of this 11th Century


{to be done}

Major Writers Born this 11th Century


1013: Hermannus Contractus (1013-1054), son of the Swabian Count Wolverad,
protegee of Gerbert

1020: Michael Constantine Psellus (1020-1110),
mathematical scholar of Constantinople

1026: Wilhelm (1026-1091), abbot of Hirschau, who taught mathematics and astronomy

1070: Jewish scholar Abraham bar Chiia [Abraham Judaeus],
commonly known as Savasorda [c.1070-c.1136]

Major Writers Died this 11th Century


12 May 1003: Gerbert (Pope Sylvester II), French scholar, dies in Rome
(he was born near Aurillac, in Auvergne, c.950)

June 1037: Death of the great Persian physician Avicenna in Hamadan, Iran.
[also known as ibn Sina, born near Bukhara, 980]

1037: great Arab physicist Alhazen dies in Cairo, Egypt.
[Abu 'Ali Al-Hasan ibn Al-Haytham]

between 1140 and 1150: Jabir ibn Aflah, Moorish scholar, commonly
known as Geber

1048: Death of the great Physicist, mathematician, and traveler Al-Biruni

1054: Hermannus Contractus (1013-1054), son of the Swabian Count Wolverad,
protegee of Gerbert

1091: Wilhelm (1026-1091), abbot of Hirschau, who taught mathematics and astronomy

Decade by Decade 11th Century Science Background


The background of science and mathematics has been promiscuously
intermingled with political/military history in the main body of text
in this web page. Some later centuries chronologized in this web site
break these apart (science/math versus political/military history).
Similarly, "literature" as a genre based on the short story and the novel
had not yet evolved, with the possible exception of Myths, stories about
Christian saints, and Japan's "The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon" and
"The Tale of Genji."

Decade by Decade 11th Century Mundane Background


11th Century CHINA - Summary

In China, northern barbarians descend and seize significant Chinese wealth.
During this invasion, the busy, worldy city at the heart of China-Kaifeng-was sacked.
Scholars loyal to Confucius stayed positive that that China's culture would survive.
In fact, they were approcimately correct: China was a global center of innovation and
would not be distracted for long. China had invented:
* print block (printing press with movable type)
* paper money
* magnetic compass
* seismograph
* accurate water clock
* acupuncture
* medical sciences
* gunpowder
* the invention and use of military rockets.

Hence invaders, instead of wiping out such innovations, were instead
enamored of such sophistication. They adopted Chinese culture, and were absorbed.


11th Century JAPAN - Summary

Dangerous seas cut off the Japanese from much of the globe. In the center
of the Japanese archipelago was a royal court where manners had evolved to
be highly sophisticated. Female courtiers had to be skilled in a remarkable
variety of endeavors. Writing skills (fiction, nonfiction, and poetry) were
prized. Sei Shonagon was one such courtier/author. Her portrait of life at
royal court survives, as vivid now as it would have been in the 11th century.
Since her world was constrained within palace walls, she viewed her world in
their smallest details: "the raindrops on a spider's web, the wind created by a
mosquito's wings, the play of light on water as it is poured into a vessel."
She also wrote down situation comedic scenes, such as when a man lay
awake at night talking to his lover, only to have the lover stay
a sleep. Sei Shonagon's nights vibrated with intrigue. Lovers tiptoed
through the palace complex for secret hours with her and other court ladies.
Court culture was only a slice of Japanese culture, yet exemplifies
this inward-looking and parochial society, which would show no major signs
of break-through for several more centuries.

11th Century INDIA - Summary

For hundreds of ywars, Indian authors gave most of Asia various sacred
scriptures and scientific writings. In this 11th century, the Islamic scholar Alberuni
came to India to find Indian wisdom. He meandered there for 15 years,
studying Sanskrit and exploring temples and . He was amazed by the energy
Indian ethicities he met, yet was baffled by India's religious leaders.
Many Indian priests were homeless and near-naked. The vast wisdom of the
previous centuries was hard to find. Alberuni saw a society that had become
insular, and staring at itself in a mirror.

11th Century SPAIN - Summary

The Muslim World was a youthful, energetic society in the 11th century.
During four centuries, Islamic warriors had conquered huge territories.
When converted by traders, the nomads of the Sahara and of central Asia
became even more Islamic than the previous followers of Islam.
In this 11th century, Turks deposed Arab rulers in Asia and Egypt,
while genuine military expansion penetrated sub-Saharan Africa,
North Africa, Afghanistan and Spain. Islamic traders expanded and
consolidated Muslim cultural influence, from the African continent
to the Middle East, Asia, and Christendom. In the center of the Western
Muslim universe was Cordoba, Spain. Similar to other Islamic cities,
it was a paradise of gardens, shops, baths, and centers of learning.

11th Century JERUSALEM - Summary

Christendom was bordered other great civilizations. In this 11th
century, the Christian world was split forever into two separate
ideological and geographic sub-cultures. The West was contemptuous
of the wealthy Eastern Church. The more sophisticated Eastern Church
held the Christians of the West to be barbarians, and far from God.
In the year 1054, years of political argument reached a climax.
The Pope (in Rome) published a document which officially excommunicating
the Eastern Church. This split create divided Europe for centuries
to come. 11th Century, it seemed that this slice of the globe had
an uncertain future, at best. Yet clearing the forests and evangelising
Christian faith throughout the continent turned out to be essential
to the revival of Western civilization later in the millennium.
Rapid growth proceeded in all directions. The trigger of Western
dynamism had been pulled, and the explosion was inevitable.


source:Compiled by Magic Dragon Multimedia/[PARAPHRASED from the CNN Television miniseries "MillenniuM",
� 1999 Turner Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved.]//draws heavily on FACTS as listed in "The Timetables of Science",
by Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch [New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988].//Facts were also checked against "The 1979 Hammond Almanac" [ed. Martin A.
Bacheller et al., Maplewood, New Jersey, 1978], p.795; and the Wikipedia.
It also utilizes facts from Volume I of D.E. Smith's "History of Mathematics"
[(c) 1921 by David Eugene Smith; (c) 1951 by May Luse Smith; New York: Dover, 1958].


Naomi Campbell




source:huffingtonpost.com/getty

Naomi Campbell




source:huffingtonpost.com/getty

Naomi Campbell




source:huffingtonpost.com/getty

Naomi Campbell with Linda Evangelista, Ms. Polly Mellon, and Christy Turlington back in 1989




source:huffingtonpost.com

Naomi Campbell by Julee Wilson

Naomi Campbell is still on top of her game. After nearly 30 years as one of the fashion industry's biggest supermodels, the London born-and-bred beauty shows no signs of slowing down. She's still hitting the runway, snagging major fashion campaigns, posing topless and recently added TV producer and star to her growing list of accomplishments.

Although there have been plenty of bumps (or brawls) along the way, the statuesque stunner has always made it through. As the iconic model turns 43-year-olds old today, she might not be where she was last year (in Israel with her former Russian billionaire boyfriend Vladislav Doronin) and she might not be the world's most power supermodel (congratulations, Giselle). But you know what? Naomi is super fab and still has the best legs in the industry!



source:huffingtonpost.com

Mr. Leroy "Sugarfoot" Bonner We Salute You

by DAN SEWELL(AP) posted 01/28/13




CINCINNATI -- Leroy "Sugarfoot" Bonner, frontman for the hit-making funk music band the Ohio Players, has died. He was 69.

The Ohio Players, known for their brassy dance music, catchy lyrics and flamboyant outfits, topped music charts in the 1970s with hits such as "Love Rollercoaster," "Fire," "Skin Tight" and "Funky Worm."

A spokeswoman for a Newcomer Funeral Home in the Dayton suburb of Kettering said Monday morning that the family hadn't scheduled any public services. There was also a posting about his death on his current band's Facebook page. No other information was released immediately about his death Saturday.

Born in Hamilton, Ohio, Bonner teamed up in the 1960s with core members of a group called the Ohio Untouchables to form the Ohio Players. The band had a string of Top 40 hits in the mid-1970s and continued to perform for years after that. He had remained active in recent years with a spinoff band called Sugarfoot's Ohio Players.

"Humble yet charismatic, soft-spoken and of few words, the weight of his thoughts, lyrics and music has influenced countless other artists, songs and trends," stated a posting attributed as an "official family announcement" on the Facebook page of Sugarfoot's Ohio Players. "He will be missed but not forgotten as his legacy and music lives on."

Marshall Jones, the bass player and a founding member of the Ohio Players, called his bandmates "a bunch of the most creative people – especially Sugarfoot – that I have ever been around."

"It's kind of crazy," Jones, 72, told The Associated Press of Bonner's death. "I'm still feeling fragile."

Jones said after years of playing music, the band's sudden stardom, with No. 1 singles and huge crowds in venues such as the Superdome in New Orleans, was stunning.

"I sit back now, and it was all a brilliant blaze," he said. "I think `Damn, did I do that?' It was just `Zoom!' That was a starburst. And like all things like that, it fizzles."

Jones said he, Bonner and other band members were delighted and flattered when "Love Rollercoaster" gained new fans through a 1990s cover by the Red Hot Chili Peppers.

Bonner had said he learned about music in Hamilton, where he was the oldest of a large family, playing harmonica, learning guitar and sneaking into bars as an adolescent to play with adult musicians. He said he ran away from his home some 20 miles north of Cincinnati at age 14, and told the Hamilton JournalNews in 2009 that he had only gone back there once. He explained he had bad memories of growing up poor.

He wound up in Dayton, where he connected with the players who would form the band. Their lineup changed at times, but featured horns, bass, guitar, drums and keyboards.

"We were players. We weren't trying to be lead singers, but we became one of the first crossover singing bands," Bonner told the Dayton Daily News in a 2003 interview. He said he initially played with his back to the audience, because he didn't want to get distracted.

While the band used sexual innuendo, Bonner said he didn't relate to some of the explicit lyrics and attitudes of later pop music and rap.

"There is nothing but the old school and the new fools," he said. "It's a shame the way these artists are preaching badness to a drum beat."




RIP



source:huffingtonpost.com

Ohio Players - Funky Worm

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SBUzRxyKlx4

Comments:Not suitable for kids

Friday, May 24, 2013

Katie Price

Last May 22, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Karoline Herfurth

Last May 22, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Anna Belknap

Last May 22, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Brooke Smith

Last May 22, is your birthday. Belated Happy Birthday. God bless.

Sybil Danning

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Déborah François




Happy Birthday. God bless.

source:imdb.com

Priscilla Presley




Happy Birthday. God bless.

source:imdb.com

Mr. Bob Dylan

Happy Birthday Mr. Dylan. God bless.

Mr. Michael Lonsdale

Happy Birthday Mr. Lonsdale. God bless.

Patti LaBelle

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Mr. Tommy Chong

Happy Birthday Mr. Chong. God bless.

Alfred Molina

Happy Birthday. God bless.

The Doors- Light My Fire

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9iSXrZYhJt4

Comments:Not suitable for kids

Jose Feliciano-- Light My Fire

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-5m5iNRQlvw

The Doors- Light My Fire

You know that it would be untrue
You know that I would be a liar
If I was to say to you
Girl, we couldn't get much higher

Come on baby, light my fire
Come on baby, light my fire
Try to set the night on fire

The time to hesitate is through
No time to wallow in the mire
Try now we can only lose
And our love become a funeral pyre

Come on baby, light my fire
Come on baby, light my fire
Try to set the night on fire, yeah

The time to hesitate is through
No time to wallow in the mire
Try now we can only lose
And our love become a funeral pyre

Come on baby, light my fire
Come on baby, light my fire
Try to set the night on fire, yeah

You know that it would be untrue
You know that I would be a liar
If I was to say to you
Girl, we couldn't get much higher

Come on baby, light my fire
Come on baby, light my fire
Try to set the night on fire
Try to set the night on fire
Try to set the night on fire
Try to set the night on fire




source:sing365.com

Will Sasso

Happy Birthday. God bless.

Jim Broadbent

Happy Birthday. God bless.

John C. Reilly

Happy Birthday. God bless.

JENNY and Del Core




source:yahoo.com

JENNY and Lo Bianco



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JENNY




source:yahoo.com

JENNY




source:yahoo.com

JENNY




source:yahoo.com

JENNY, Del Core and Ortolani




source:yahoo.com

JENNY




source:yahoo.com

JENNY




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Irina Shayk




source:fr.news.yahoo.com

Irina Shayk




source:fr.news.yahoo.com

Irina Shayk




source:fr.news.yahoo.com

Irina Shayk




source:fr.news.yahoo.com

Irina Shayk




source:fr.news.yahoo.com